Facts and Statistics

Saudi relied on two sources of water: groundwater and water from desalination plants that remove salt from seawater. But the desalination process is extremely energy intensive.

During the process of desalination of sea water, machines heat sea water and gather the water vapor, which is gathered to be pure water for agricultural and industrial use. However, after the process of desalination, sea water becomes polluted with high concentration of salt. Aftermath of desalination, this water does not only contain high salt concentration, but it also contains high concentration of metal (Sabine Lattemann).
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Polluted water have  extinct hundreds of sea creatures; it damages biodiversity of Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Arabian Sea (PDKK).
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Desalination plants also harm the surrounding environment, pumping pollutants into the air and endangering marine ecosystems with their run-off.
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The Gulf War spill directly affected the Saudi Arabian shoreline.While initial research found minuscule long-term impacts, recent studies show oil persistence in ocean habitats.
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The Gulf Coast spill increased the toxicity of Saudi Arabia’s coastline. During the initial aftermath, only visible oil was removed from the Gulf. The rest of the spill has remained in the ocean for the past 25 years and contributes to high-risk amounts of hydrocarbons in the environment.
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Increasingly urban areas call for more desalinated water and a growing water sector. Desalinization plants use greenhouse gasses and are highly inefficient.
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Marine life and ocean ecosystems are threatened by urbanization as well. Coastline construction from residential and tourism projects increase the amount of untreated sewage released into the ocean and excess trash in cities.Construction and human activities lead to coastal reef damage and high ocean acidity. Urban and agricultural runoff frequently contaminate waters by releasing untreated waste.
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